Scenarioplanning - social futures

Algoritmer og kultur, privatliv.
Algoritmer og arbejdsmarkedet, robotisering.

Future of Humanity Institute 
The Institute is led by Founding Director Professor Nick Bostrom.

Open letter warning AI arms race
Musk, Wozniak and Hawking urge ban on warfare AI and autonomous weapons ... 

Algoritmer og kultur

De skjulte algoritmer: Teknoantropologiske perspektiver
Redaktører: Klavs Birkholm, Niels Frølich; oversætter: Karen Dinesen
DJØF 2018. 

Klavs Birkholm: Algoritmens autoritet - en etisk og politisk udfordring. 
Massimo Mazzotti: Den algoritmiske tilværelse. 
Carole Cadwalladr: Google, demokratiet og sandheden om internetsøgninger. 
Cathy O'Neil: Hvordan kan vi forhindre algoritmerne i at lyve? 
Adam Greenfield: Maskinernes overtagelse: hvem er "tingenes internet" til gavn for? 
Aske Mottelson: Algoritmik-etik: om IT-programmørernes skjulte magt.
Niels Frølich: "Modeller er meninger indpakket i matematik" - programmørens dilemma. 
Luke Dormehl: Ansigtsgenkendelse: er teknologien en trussel mod din identitet? 
Rikke Gottrup: Når sagsbehandleren er en maskine - er retssikkerheden så i fare? 
Hanne Marie Motzfeldt: Hverken fravige eller mekanisk fastholde, men gentænke. 
Evgeny Morozov: Algoritmisk regulering og politikkens død.

Review - Du er ikke din egen længere
af Anette Lerche ... 

Klavs Birkholm

Tænketanken TeknoEtik

AI and culture

Governmental strategies to guide the development of artificial intelligence 
Countries around the world are establishing governmental and intergovernmental strategies and initiatives to guide the development of artificial intelligence (AI). 
... This page highlights three complimentary resources to help decision makers navigate AI policy:

Integrating social power into the decision-making of cognitive

Gonçalo Pereira *, Rui Prada, Pedro A. Santos 2016.
... ... and the application of social cognitive processes is a key factor in the development of virtual humans to train social skills, such as
negotiation, interviewing and leadership ... pdf 

Building interactive virtual humans for training environments
P.G. Kenny, A. Hartholt, J. Gratch, W. Swartout, D. Traum, S.C. Marsella, D. Piepol 2007
Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference, I/ITSEC, Orlando, FL (Nov. 2007) ... pdf 

The micro–macro constitution of power
C. Castelfranchi
ProtoSociology, 18–19 (2003), pp. 208-268

InMind and OutMind Societal Order Cognition & Self-Organization: The Role of MAS
C. Castelfranchi (May 2013)

Cristiano Castelfranchi  
Trust Theory: A Socio-Cognitive and Computational Model (with Rino Falcone). 2010. ...

Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View
S. Milgram. Harper & Row (1974).

Teaming up humans with autonomous synthetic characters
R. Prada, A. Paiva. Artif. Intell., 173 (1) (2009), pp. 80-103 ... 

Culture & education

Three major trends are affecting how human capital is developed and deployed around the world.

1) Globalization and technology are accelerating job creation and destruction.
2) Education and training systems, having remained largely static for decades, are not keeping pace with these shifts.
3) Outdated cultural norms and institutional inertia create roadblocks for half of the world’s talent.

These factors together exacerbate income inequality and fuel political and social turmoil.

“Realizing Human Potential in the Fourth Industrial Revolution: An Agenda for Leaders to Shape the Future of Education, Gender and Work,”
World Economic Forum, January 2017; OECD 2017 Employment Outlook. ... 

AI and Existential Risk

Transhumanisme and Existential Risk 
Many transhumanists take it for granted that the arrival of artificial intelligence will be a Very Good Thing. 
Hollywood usually thinks the opposite. (Terminator, Matrix, Blade Runner etc).

Ray Kurzweil is an extreme optimist.

Hugo de Garis. If Ray Kurzweil is an extreme optimist, professor de Garis is at the other end of the spectrum.  
Hugo de Garis (2005). The Artilect War: Cosmists Vs. Terrans: A Bitter Controversy Concerning Whether Humanity Should Build Godlike Massively Intelligent Machines. Palm Springs, CA: ETC Publications.

Some people take a more balanced view
Nick Bostrom. A philosophy professor at Oxford University and Director of the Future of Humanity Institute.

Kultur og velfærd

Human Development: Definitions  
Alkire, S. (2010). “Human Development: Definitions, Critiques, and Related Concepts”. Background paper for the 2010 Human Development Report. Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, University of Oxford.

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
Alkire, S. and G. Robles (2017). “Global Multidimensional Poverty Index”. Briefing 47. Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative,
University of Oxford

Development Goals: Where do we need to go? 
Bourguignon, F., Bénassy-Quéré, A., Dercon, S., Estache, A., Gunning, J. W. and Kanbur, R. (2008). “Millennium Development Goals at Midpoint:
Where do we stand and where do we need to go?”. 
Background paper for European Report on Development 2009.

The age of perplexit: Rethinking the world we knew  
Madrid, BBVA, OpenMind, Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial. ... pdf

Culture, values and technology  
Starting a conversation on the values and principles that guide technology. 
The Copenhagen Letter.

Critical Algorithm Lab (CALL) - KU 
Critical Algorithm Lab... identifies the role that social big data can play in new forms of interdisciplinary social science. 
Morten Axel Pedersen and Anders Blok.

Kulturpolitik - privatliv 

The Black Box Society - The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information, by Frank Pasquale

Frank Pasquale exposes how powerful interests abuse secrecy for profit and explains ways to rein them in. Demanding transparency is only the first step. An intelligible society would assure that key decisions of its most important firms are fair, nondiscriminatory, and open to criticism. Silicon Valley and Wall Street need to accept as much accountability as they impose on others. ... 

Four levers to redefine our future 
Create a Cultural Awakening 
Inspire Humane Design 
Apply Political Pressure 
Engage Employees

Military and AI

Autonomous Weapons Systems  
Bhuta, N., Beck, S., Geiß, R., Liu, H., and Kreß, C. (eds). 2016. Autonomous Weapons Systems:
Law, Ethics, Policy. Cambridge University Press.
Nick Bostrom: Policy​ ​Desiderata, [working paper]

Roff, H.M., 2014. The strategic robot problem: Lethal autonomous weapons in war. Journal of
Military Ethics, 13(3), pp. 211-227.

The future of lethal autonomous weapons systems
Lethal Autonomous Weapons: An Update from the United Nations ...

Slaughterbots scenario - #BanKillerRobots ... 
Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS)

Google and Pentagon Project Maven
Google employees  signed a letter protesting the company’s involvement in a Pentagon program called “Project Maven”. ... googleletter.pdf

Nations that endorse the call to ban LAWS ... 2018/04 ... pdf
Many countries submitted working papers to inform the discussions, including China and the United States. ... 

Horowitz, Michael. 2016. Who’ll want artificially intelligent weapons? ISIS, democracies, or autocracies? Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist 70 Years Speaking Knowledge to Power. ... 

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 
UN General Assembly resolution, 1948 ... 

AI debate

Is Artificial Intelligence a Threat?  
... Nick Bostrom ... Oxford Martin School ...  He created the "paper-clip maximizer" ...
At the Machine Intelligence Research Institute, the top donors include Peter Thiel's foundation ... 

Seed AI
"Once you reach a certain level of machine intelligence, and th debatee machine becomes clever enough, it can start to apply its intelligence to itself and improve itself," says Bostrom, who calls the phenomenon "seed AI" or "recursively self-improving AI." ... 

Global Catastrophic Risk Institute, NY

Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg and Elon Musk, of SpaceX and Tesla, have each invested in Vicarious, an AI firm that wants to replicate the human brain. ... 

An AI firm that wants to replicate the human brain.

Hector Levesque

American Association of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) ...

Artificial Intelligence - An International Journal

Chappie and the Future of Moral Machines 
The movie ... captures the moral complexity of modern research and development, particularly when militaries, police, and defense communities are the primary owners of the technology. ...
Case: Law Enforcement Equipment Working Group   This concern, as embodied by the continuing conflict in Ferguson, Missouri, is so significant that the president created a new Law Enforcement Equipment Working Group to determine how state and local police can use military technology. 
Trolley problem  
For example, Bertram Malle of Brown University and colleagues recently reported the results of a study in which humans were presented with a variation on the classic “trolley problem” in ethics. (In the “trolley problem,” one person might be killed or allowed to die in order to save others.) ... 

Future Tense explores the ways emerging technologies affect society, policy, and culture. To read more, visit the Future Tense blog and the Future Tense home page. You can also follow us on Twitter. ...

Robotlovgivning i EU  
Er en robot mere end bare en ting? EU-land vil anerkende robotter som juridisk enheder ... 

Case: Estonia  
Estonia still has many hurdles ahead. Giving robots personal rights and responsibilities "goes against Europe’s humanist history of law,” noted Triniti, the law firm that prepared a legal analysis for the ministry on the issue. ... 


Surveillance Business Model 
“In 10 Years, the Surveillance Business Model Will Have Been Made Illegal” 
Robocall hell, culture and big data 
... While Google presented Duplex as an exciting technological breakthrough, others saw something else: a system able to deceive people into believing they were talking to a human being, an ethical red flag (and a surefire way to get to robocall hell).
Techlash and digital platforms ...

Silicon Valley ethics 
Silicon Valley is ethically lost, rudderless and has not learned a thing ... v/Zeynep Tufekci ...

Tristan Harris  
Center for Humane Technology. Former Google Design Ethicist.

Stigler Center’s annual antitrust conference ... pdf 

Schneier, Bruce 2015: Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World.
W. W. Norton & Company

Electronic Privacy Information Center

Læring og organisation

Deliberately Developmental Organizations
Deliberately Developmental Organizations. A DDO is organized around the simple but radical conviction that organizations will best prosper when they are more deeply aligned with people's strongest motive, which is to grow. ... 

Kultur og AI

Scalable Cooperation v/MIT Media Lab ...
Kunstig intelligens bliver psykopatisk ... 


Algorithms of Oppression  
Algorithms of Oppression contributes to our understanding of how racism is created, maintained, and disseminated in the 21st century. ... 

Self-Education Is Our Best Bet in the Fight Against the Panopticon ... 



Algorithms and justice

A Case for Clarity in the Age of Algorithmic Injustice by Jen Kagan 
... What kind of transparency might we get by asking government agencies to publish the source code of their automated processing methods? ...

Bernard Harcourt 2007: Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age
University of Chicago Press
... Harcourt shows how the perceived success of actuarial methods has begun to distort our very conception of just punishment and to obscure alternate visions of social order. ... 

The New IP Strategy: Make Love, Not War 
Leveling the Patent Playing Field: 
... Consequently, nonpracticing entities (NPEs), whose business is building an arsenal of patents to assert, have become less successful at demanding rich licensing deals ... Several high-profile verdicts, such as Smartflash’s $533 million judgment against Apple, have been reversed on appeal. 
... Microsoft’s Azure IP Advantage program is an example ... the program insulates customers from the possibility that Microsoft might transfer a patent to an NPE.
... Tesla opened its electric-car patents to competitors as a way to shape and accelerate the growth of the industry. ... 

Myhrvold co-founded Intellectual Ventures 
... The company's business practices have caused controversy, however, with some deprecating the firm as a patent troll.

Market value of Intangible assets and IP   
The market value of IP has softened, its business value continues to rise. Intangible assets, of which IP makes up a large part, accounted for 84% of the S&P 500’s market value in 2015, up from 80% in 2005 and just 17% in 1975. ... 

Google's AI principles

AI at Google: our principles
Jeff Dean Senior Fellow, Google AI.

AI lobby

Partnership on AI (PAI) 
The Partnership on AI to Benefit People and Society was established to study and formulate best practices on AI technologies, to advance the public’s understanding of AI, and to serve as an open platform for discussion and engagement about AI and its influences on people and society.

Shock of the Old

Society and technology 
An alert assessment of the complex way society responds to technology. ... Drawing on political, economic and cultural history, The Shock of the Old dispels misplaced futurism and exemplifies a radical new way of looking at our world.
David Edgerton 2011: Shock Of The Old: Technology and Global History since 1900. ... 


The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) 
(Until 2016: One Belt One Road). ...
BRI official portal

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) ... 
Denmark officially became the founding countries of the AIIB on April 12, 2015. ... ... 

Digital giants Tencent and Alibaba are ... developing their self-sufficient ecosystems, striving to control a big chunk of any consumer’s digital and O2O footprints. That privileged access also allows Tencent and Alibaba to learn about the consumer behavior of every individual using their products.

Level up: Google Investment to Boost’s Retail Power 
China’s second-largest e-commerce site announced on June 18 2018 that U.S. tech giant Google will invest $550 million in its company, as part of a strategic partnership. The cash deal comes amid heightened competition among the country’s major e-commerce players – including Alibaba Group,, and Secoo.

From O2O to ‘Palaces of Experience’: How China’s Malls Adapt to a Digital World
According to a recent report by Taubman Asia titled “China Mall 2020,” the key drivers that are set to determine the future success of malls in China include the addition of lifestyle and social activities, the integration of online-to-offline (O2O) strategies, and the adoption of mobile technology. ... 

5 Surprising Facts on the Consumption Habits of China’s Post-00s Generation  
... They see no difference between home-grown and foreign brands.

Jing Daily is the leading digital publication on luxury consumer trends in China.

AI solutionism

AI dreams and delusions 
In only a few years, AI solutionism has spread from Silicon Valley’s technology evangelists to government officials and policymakers around the world. The pendulum has swung, away from the dystopian notion that AI will destroy humanity, towards the newly discovered utopian belief that our algorithmic saviour has arrived. ...

The age of the algorithm needs editors ...

Spending on A.I. and machine learning is expected to grow from $12 billion in 2017 to $57.6 billion by 2021, according to analysts at the International Data Corporation. ...

The Pew report identified seven themes of the algorithm era: ... pdf ...

Case - Medicine
IBM pitched its Watson supercomputer as a revolution in cancer care. It’s nowhere close
Watson for Oncology
Watson Health general manager Deborah DiSanzo

IBM’s cognitive solutions division 
The Cognitive Solutions & Foundations department at IBM Research ...


Change management

Change management, articles ... 

Culture and capitalism

Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism 
Fredric Jameson. Verso 1991. ... pdf ...
In 1969, Jameson co-founded the Marxist Literary Group . 

Theodor W. Adorno

Institute for Social Research  
The Institute was founded in Frankfurt am Main in 1923, where it was (and as of 2005 once again is) affiliated with the University of Frankfurt am Main. It was founded by Felix Weil, a student of the Marxist philosopher Karl Korsch. 
In 1933, after the rise of Hitler, the Institute left Germany for Geneva and then in 1934 moved to New York City. 

Karl Korsch  
In 1917 he joined the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), which had broken away from the Social Democratic Party of Germany over the later's support for the war.
Ten Theses on Marxism Today

Ossip K. Flechtheim  
Flechtheim  is credited with coining of the term "Futurology" in 1943. Alvin Toffler in his book: The Futurists" (1972).
1945: Teaching the Future. Journal for Higher Education, 16 (1945), 460-65.
1949: “Futurology – The New Science of Probability?
1952: Fundamentals of Political Science
1966: History and futurology. ... 
1969 essay Discussion on Future Research. 
1970: Futurology: The battle for the future.
1980: Der Kampf um die Zukunft: Futurologie
1983: Marx heute: pro und contra.
1987: Ist die Zukunft noch zu retten? Hamburg.

History and Theodicy: Some critical remarks on the theories of history of Hegel and Marx 
Ossip K. Flechtheim. Phylon (1940-1956), Vol. 2, No. 3. (3rd Qtr., 1941), pp. 238-249. ... pdf

Restarting Socialism: The New Beginning Group and the Problem of Renewal on the German Left, 1930-1970
Terence Ray Renaud. 2015. 
About: Ossip K. Flechtheim: Saving the Future, pp. 186-191.  
...  Flechtheim’s twelve years in American exile from 1939 to 1951 proved crucial for conceiving his most
important contribution to postwar German intellectual history: a brand of critical utopian studies he called futurology.
... In a 1946 article in Clark Atlanta University’s literary and philosophical journal
Phylon, Flechtheim rejected the quasi-religious “theodicies” of Hegel, Marx, and
Toynbee’s philosophies of history because they all forced inconvenient historical facts
into a teleological straitjacket. Instead of constructing a grand historical narrative, he
painted a “picture [of] history as an endless odyssey of the human species. . . . Yet unlike
Odysseus, humanity will never return home to its Ithaca, nor will it ever be rewarded for
its trials and tribulations by a faithful and devoted Penelope.”
... : awareness of possible futures may influence our interpretation of the past and our decisions in the present. 
...  Flechtheim’s great alternative to totalitarianism, the third force, encompassed in contrast all “dynamic, democratic, and
humanist movements”: ... pdf

Jenny Andersson, “The Great Future Debate and the Struggle for the World,”
American Historical Review, 117, no. 5 (Dec. 2012), 1411-30; ... 
Kaya Tolon, “Futures Studies: A New Social Science Rooted in Cold War Strategic Thinking,”
in Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens, eds., Cold War Social Science:
Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 45-62. ... pdf ...